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Roseola Infantum

From Periodical Pediatrics; Written by Katie Luce on 2012-02-13
Roseola Infantum

An 18 month old female came into the hospital following two seizure episodes. At the time of the fever she had a very high fever, 104, but no other symptoms and the patient had no history of seizures or illness. The patient had no subsequent seizures and the fever subsided. The next day the patient began getting a rash on her face which spread to her body.
A 19 month old female came into the office with a diffuse rash. Two days before the rash began she had a high fever, 103, for about 24 hours. The patient had no other symptoms. The rash began after the fever subsided and was a diffuse maculopapular rash covering her face, trunk, and proximal extremities. The rash became worse in warm water.
These two patients had the same disease - Roseola Infantum, also known as Sixth Disease. This is a viral illness common in infants, caused by Human Herpes Virus 6.
Typically, the young patient has...(Read More)

It's in the Genes

From Periodical Pediatrics; Written by Katie Luce on 2012-02-06

Every trait a person has is determined by genetics. Appearance, personality traits, mannerisms, and even certain diseases are all genetically determined at fertilization. Some inherited traits are only expressed under certain circumstances, but they are still inherited at birth.
Each person has a unique set of chromosomes, 46 in total. Chromosomes 1-22 are autosomes and 23 is the sex chromosome. Because one set comes from the mother and the other from the father, there are 23 pairs of duplicate chromosomes, with the exception of the sex chromosomes in males, which are not duplicate.
On each chromosome are certain alleles - these are the parts of the chromosome that are responsible for different traits. Since each person has a pair of matching chromosomes, there are two alleles for each trait. However, in reality, genetics is much more complicated and many traits are determined by multiple...(Read More)

Strep Throat

From Periodical Pediatrics; Written by Katie Luce on 2012-02-06
Strep Throat

A 10 year old female came in to the office with a one week history of upper respiratory symptoms and a three day history of sore throat. On physical exam the only positive findings were in the throat - pharyngitis, tonsilitis and a white exudate on the left tonsil. I did a rapid strep culture which came back positive so a ten day course of Amoxicillin was prescribed.
Strep throat is a bacterial infection caused by Group A Streptococcus. Symptoms range from mild to severe and can include sore throat and pain wiht swallowing, fatigue, nausea, and loss of appetite. The throat may be mildly red but white exudates can be present in the throat and on the tonsils. Lymph nodes may be palpable in the neck and another classic sign is the "strawberry tongue".
Strep throat is treated with antibiotics, typically one from the penicillin family, unless the patient is allergic, in which case erythromycin...(Read More)

Cystic Fibrosis

From Periodical Pediatrics; Written by Katie Luce on 2012-02-02

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is one of the most lethal inherited diseases of caucasians, and is most common in those of Irish descent. It is a disease of exocrine glands that results in viscous secretions, causing frequent respiratory infections, pancreatic insuffinciency and increased electrolytes in sweat.
CF is caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in the CFTR gene located on chromosome 7, causing a cloride channel to work improperly. Chloride does not exit from cells and this resulting increase in osmotic pressure attracts water into the cells. This subsequently leads to thick secretions.
Common symptoms involve the respiratory and GI tracts. Cough is the most common symptom, but also in the respiratory tract are the symptoms of recurrent sinusitis and pneumonia. GI symptoms include meconium ileus, failure to thrive, malabsorption and deficiencies of fat soluble vitamins.
Other...(Read More)

Hematology 101

From Periodical Pediatrics; Written by Katie Luce on 2012-01-11
Hematology 101

Hematology refers to the "study of the blood". In general, there are three different cell lines; the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red cells are important for carrying oxygen from the lungs to cells in the body. White cells are responsible for fighting infections. A platelet's job is to prevent bleeding by forming clots at specific sites when needed.
There are many conditions in which blood cells either are not produced properly or do not work properly, and this can wreak havoc on the body, causing many problems.
In general, problems with blood cells can be due to a problem with appropriate production, increased destruction of cells, or loss of cells. Some conditions effect all three blood cell lines, while others only effect one or two cell lines.
Anemia is a very common condition that refers to decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, and is the result...(Read More)

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